In many parts of the World, oil and gas still explored and exploited. Based on gas exploration accident in Porong, East Java, Indonesia, I write this article, with hope there would be no more such accident.
Exploration terminology is for first step before oil and gas could be produced. Exploration includes estimation where the location is, and complete study of risks, and costs that would be expensed. One important thing in oil and gas exploration is study of Earth sedimentation. From the East Java (Porong town) case, drilling site stands above thin hard skin of Earth, caused drilling process reached Earth magma. This is the first problem. Second problem and causing major disaster is drilling site stands above delta area. Delta area is area between mouths of 2 near rivers, contains much of water, even best place for agriculture, because of its water content.
Drilling above delta of course produces water. In Porong case, drilling site not only above delta, but it is to close to vulcanic chain. Lack of preliminary sedimentation analysis caused drilled well producing hot water from the well, uninterrupted, and constant hot. Hot water mixed with soil producing huge number of mud, drawning many houses and factories around site with 4-5 meter deep. That's why sedimentation analysis is absolute before every oil and gas exploration. Material out from drilling well could be unexpected & very destructive.
If we like to drill deeply in land and sea, we must take attention of sedimentation under. Avoid area already signed as vulcanic area. In vulcanic chain around the Earth, Earth skin relatively thin, and if we drill just shallowly, we will suddenly contact Earth magma. In World, vulcanic area form chain, there is chain from Sumatera, Java, Nusa Tenggara, goes to Philippine, Japan, Hawaii, West North America, goes down to West South America, called Pacific Ring. There is vulcanic chain from Iceland goes South in the middle of Atlantic Ocean. Drilling for oil or gas on this chain is absolutely forbidden.
Another risky area is area contains water or another intruding material. Intruding material would make difficult for oil and gas refinery later.
In oil & gas exploration, then oil & gas production, surrounding nature environment should also be taken as concern. Nature beauty and lasting are very important in many aspects, from oxygen supply, tourisms, etc.. So try open as small as area for drilling in order to keep as large as nature area maintained. Maintain its natural beauty.
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